The chain of survival suggests that basic life support (CPR and defibrillation) should be available to the victim of cardiac arrest within four minutes of the event, and that advanced life support (paramedic service) should be available within eight minutes or less of the event. Early notification, distribution and concentration of emergency response service are thus paramount to successful resuscitation efforts.
In trauma events, the golden hour is the historic benchmark applied to victims with significant critical traumatic injuries. The golden hour reflects the concept that survivability decreases significantly if the patient isn’t in the operating room within one hour of receiving a critical traumatic injury. The proper placement and staffing of well trained and equipped personnel is crucial for positive outcomes regarding emergencies.